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Wednesday, Nov-26 2014 19:37 WIB
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Apa Itu Lembaga 'Super Body' OJK?
Published: 1 Mar 2012 12:27 WIB


IMQ, Jakarta —  UU No. 21 Tahun 2011 tentang Otoritas Jasa Keuangan (OJK) disahkan oleh DPR RI pada tanggal 27 Oktober 2011 lalu, setelah mengalami penundaan selama beberapa lama.

Sepanjang penyusunan dan pengesahan UU OJK juga mendapat resistensi yang kuat terutama dari BI. UU OJK ini bertujuan untuk membentuk sebuah lembaga independen dalam menjalankan tugas dan wewenangnya, bebas dari intervensi pihak lain.

Tugas dan wewenangnya meliputi microprudential, yakni pengaturan pengawasan, manajemen risiko dan penindakan (administratif) terhadap kegiatan perbankan, pasar modal dan industri keuangan non bank (IKNB).

Selama ini tugas-tugas tersebut berada di bawah BI dan Bapepam-LK Kemenkeu, namun sering bermasalah. Jumlah institusi keuangan yang akan diawasi OJK sekitar 3.681 unit dengan kapitalisasi senilai Rp7.778 triliun, yang setara dengan PDB Indonesia. Tidak mengherankan jika banyak pihak menilai OJK sebagai lembaga “super body”.

Otoritas Jasa Keuangan akan dipimpin oleh sebuah Dewan Komisioner terdiri dari 7 orang hasil seleksi Panitia Seleksi yang dipimpin Menteri Keuangan, Seleksi Presiden dan selanjutnya Fit and Proper test di DPR, khususnya Komisi XI. Hasil seleksi akan menetapkan 7 orang Dewan Komisioner OJK. Selain itu, ketujuh DK OJK tersebut akan ditambah dua orang anggota ex-officio dari Kemenkeu dan BI sebagair epresentasi poros Banteng-Thamrin.

DK OJK tidak dapat diberhentikan sebelum masa jabatannya berakhir kecuali meninggal dunia, mengundurkan diri, berhalangan melaksanakan tugas, tidak menjalankan tugasnya dan hal-hal lainnya.

Tugas OJK dilaksanakan oleh DK melalui mekanisme kolegial dan keputusan penting diambil melalui pemilihan suara. Bagi anggota DJ OJK yang tidak setuju dengan keputusan tersebut dapat membuat semacam “dissenting opinion”. DK OJK inilah yang banyak disebut publik sebagai “Manusia Setengah Dewa”.

OJK akan memiliki masing-masing seorang Kepala Eksekutif yang membidangi perbankan, pasar modal dan IKNB. Tugas masing-masing Kepala Eksekutif adalah memimpin tugas pengawasan di bidang masing-masing. Para pegawai di bawah Kepala Eksekutif ini berasal dari ex-BI dan ex-Bapepam-LK yang sudah berpengalaman mengawasi sektornya masing-masing. Masa transisi BI-Bapepam-LK melebur menjadi OJK akan menjadi periode krusial.

Untuk itu dibutuhkan perencanaan dan pengawasan ekstra dari pemerintah dan dilakukan dalam waktu secepatnya agar tidak berimplikasi negatif terhadap industri keuanagan nasional.

OJK akan melaporkan kegiatan kepada DPR dan Presiden atas hasil audit Kantor Akuntan Publik atau Badan Pemeriksa Keuangan. Dalam pelaksanaan tugasnya, Otoritas Jasa Keuangan akan berkoordinasi dengan Bank Indonesia, Kementerian Keuangan dan Lembaga Penjamin Simpanan. Sistem pengendalian manajemen OJK harus memenuhi unsur-unsur good corporate governance dan menerapkan keterbukaan informasi yang akuntabel.

Anggaran operasional OJK secara teknis akan diambil dari iuran pelaku industri jasa keuangan itu sendiri. Hal ini perlu diwaspadai secara ekstra karena rawan unsur subjektivitas.

Beberapa pelaku jasa keuangan yang besar (big players) dapat memanfaatkan situasi ini untuk meningkatkan “daya tawarnya” terhadap DK OJK. Maka fungsi dan kewenangan OJK berpotensi “melemah” jika berhadapan dengan pelaku kakap perbankan dan pasar modal.

Selain itu, konsep ini akan membuat OJK semakin mandiri (baca: liberal) dari jangkauan pemerintah.

Selain itu, pemilihan DK OJK disinyalir sarat dengan kepentingan ekonomi-politik tingkat tinggi. Semua pihak baik pejabat, politikus dan big players akan tergiur dengan besarnya kekuasaan OJK di bidang yang sangat strategis kini. Maka diprediksi OJK akan tersandera oleh berbagai kepentingan ekonomi-politik sesaat. Semoga hal itu tidak terjadi…….
Author: Perdana Wahyu Sentosa
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