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Mengenal Price Earning Ratio (PER)
Published: 1 Nov 2011 11:54 WIB


IMQ, Jakarta —  PER dikenal sebagai salah satu indikator terpenting di pasar modal. Definisi resminya kira-kira adalah suatu rasio yang menggambarkan bagaimana keuntungan perusahaan atau emiten saham (company's earnings) terhadap harga sahamnya (stock price).

Perhitungan rasio P/E atau PER dilakukan dengan cara membagi harga saham saat ini (current price of the stock) dengan keuntungan tahunan per saham (annual earnings per share-EPS).

Misalnya, emiten saham ABCD mempunyai keuntungan bersih per saham (earning per share) sebesar Rp200, dengan harga sahamnya saat ini Rp2.000 per lembar, maka PER ABCD adalah 10. Artinya jika kita berinvestasi saat ini pada saham ABCD maka masa kembali modal pokoknya (payback period)-nya sekitar 10 tahun.

Mengapa demikian? Itu karena kita membeli saham tersebut dengan 10 kali laba bersih per sahamnya (EPS) dengan asumsi inflasi 0% dan ABCD mempunyai tingkat keuntungan tetap Rp200 per saham.

Untuk mendapatkan tingkat imbal hasil saham (return), maka cukup dihitung dengan 1/PER saja, sebagai contoh imbal hasil ABCD adalah 1/10, yaitu 10% per tahunnya.

Kemudian kita bandingkan dengan return pasar, apabila return saham lebih tinggi dari return pasar, maka saham tersebut layak dibeli begitu juga sebaliknya. PER juga dapat dipakai untuk membandingkan kinerja antar saham atau antar sektor bahkan antar pasar dalam skala regional ataupun global.

PER juga merupakan angka psikologis bagi value investor dimana PER yang kecil akan lebih menarik dibandingkan dengan PER tinggi. PER rendah ini disebabkan oleh laba per saham yang relatif tinggi dibandingkan dengan harga sahamnya, sehingga tingkat return-nya lebih baik dan payback period-nya lebih singkat lagi. PER yang kecil merupakan salah satu pertimbangan utama bagi value investing di samping faktor-faktor lainnya.

Maka PER saham yang lebih tinggi dari PER pasar kurang baik untuk investasi jangka panjang, namun dapat dilakukan untuk short-run atau trading dengan pertimbangan teknikal saja. Seorang investor yang cerdas akan menghindari saham dengan PER tinggi, apalagi saham itu mempunyai volatilitas yang tinggi sehingga memiliki potensi risiko yang tinggi pula.

Pada saat ini di mana harga saham berjatuhan, maka PER saham anjlok drastis hampir sebesar rata-rata 60% dan PER pasar sudah di bawah 10, maka ini merupakan sinyal kuat untuk memulai investasi nilai seiring dengan momentum krisis ekonomi.

Bahkan beberapa saham unggulan sudah mencapai PER di bawah 5. Bagi value investor momentum ini merupakan peluang investasi jangka panjangnya.

Semoga bermanfaat, selamat berinvestasi...
Author: Perdana Wahyu Sentosa
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